Microbes present the first link in the evolution chain and a substantial portion of the Earth's biota. The microorganisms catalyze important changes in the biosphere, represent the source of the main atmosphere components and responsible for a significant part of the genetic diversity on our planet.
One of the most important trends in the assessment of biodiversity is the study of the "hidden" microbial diversity: uncultivable forms, many of which have the size of the smallest bacteria. There is no any research information about the scientific basis of its biotechnological potential and storing ability in collections. Knowledge of physiological and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms and elucidation of necessary connections metabolism is the key to solving many environmental problems, creation of breakthrough industrial technologies and perspective medicine and agriculture products. In Russian Federation, this issue has a particular relevance as areas of extreme weather conditions (such as the Arctic and the Far East) are characterized by maximum latent microbial diversity. Thus extremophiles (micro-organisms that live in extreme environments) often have properties that allow them to be used in practice, including for the development of renewable energy sources, creating a natural way to clean the environment from anthropogenic pollution, etc. That’s why the planned work will be an important factor in solving the fundamental problems in biology of microorganisms, while the results will become the basis for the development of new effective biotechnologies.